Braddy was pulled over by an Alabama law enforcement officer on Interstate 65 in Saraland, Alabama. Initially the officer saw Braddy react suddenly to the presence of the officer’s marked patrol vehicle. The officer then observed that Braddy’s license tag was obscured by two bicycles and because the obstruction of an Alabama license is prohibited under an Alabama statute, he was pulled over despite the fact that Braddy had a Florida plate. During the traffic stop, a drug detection dog alerted to the presence of drugs. A search discovered cocaine inside the vehicle. Braddy was charged in federal court with the federal offense of possession with intent to distribute more than five kilograms of cocaine and conspiracy to distribute cocaine in violation of 21 U.S.C. §§841 and 846.
He challenged the seizure of the evidence arguing this was an unreasonable search and seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment. First, he said the officer lacked probable cause to make the traffic stop because he incorrectly applied Alabama law to Braddy, a nonresident Florida driver, and that the mistake was not objectionably reasonable. Second, even if the stop was justified and legal, the officer illegally prolonged the traffic stop without reasonable suspicion. Third, the two police dogs that performed dog sniffs on the vehicle did not have a positive alert to justify the search.