The defendant in U.S. v. Salgado was indicted and convicted of the federal crimes of drug conspiracy, money laundering conspiracy, and possession with intent to distribute as least one kilogram of heroin. Prior to sentencing the presentence investigation report (psi) calculated his guidelines sentence range by grouping his convictions together under USSG § 3D1.2(c) because the drug conspiracy and distribution offenses were “the underlying offenses from which the laundered funds were derived.” The psi used the money laundering guideline, USSG § 2S1.1 to determine the defendant’s base offense level. To calculate the offense level under § 2S1.1, the psi set his base offense level using the guideline for the underlying conspiracy to distribute heroin. Under the facts of this case it came to a level 34. It then determined that certain enhancements applied under § 2S1.1, including a role enhancement, for his role in the heroin transactions that qualified him as a manager, leader or supervisor.
The issue in this appeal was not whether Salgado’s role in the heroin distribution conspiracy made him a manager, leader, or supervisor. Instead, the issue was whether the district court misapplied the guidelines by using Saldgado’s conduct in the underlying drug conspiracy to impose a role enhancement when calculating his offense level for money laundering under USSG § 2S1.1(a)(1).
According to §1B1.5(c), if the offense level adjustments is determined by reference to another guideline, the Chapter Three adjustments also are determined in respect to the referenced offense guideline “except as otherwise expressly provided.” This means that where a guideline determines a defendant’s offense level by reference to another offense, the Chapter Three adjustments are to be based on the guideline and rules for that other offense. But the 11th Circuit pointed out that this is a default rule because the “except as otherwise” provided language. Application note 2(c) of § 2S1.1 is one of the otherwise provided exceptions. It instructs courts that when setting an offense level under § 2S1.1(a)(1), a court should make Chapter Three adjustments based on the defendant’s conduct in the money laundering offense itself, and not based on his conduct in the offense from which the money that was laundered was obtained. This meant that when the district court calculated Salgado’s offense level under § 2S1.1(a)(1), it could base his role enhancement on conduct in the money laundering conspiracy but not on his conduct in the underlying drug offense.
The psi should have first determined which of the three grouped convictions would result in the highest adjusted offense level by calculating Salgado’s offense level under the guideline for each offense. The district court must select the offense with the highest offense level and then apply the enhancements based on the factual conduct for that underlying offense. Here the money laundering conduct did not lead to role enhancement for the defendant. The 11th Circuit rejected the Government’s argument that the court should consider relevant conduct and found that the “unless otherwise specified” language together with Application Note 2(c) to § 2S1.1 means that the relevant conduct is limited solely to the defendant’s conduct in the money laundering offense.